Slovakia is rich in caves, with more than 6,200 that have already been explored.
Going into a cave in Slovakia does not always mean passively admiring the various shapes of stalactites, stalagmites, and stalagnates. Some cave staff offer a helmet and a headlamp and turn the visit into a real underground adventure.
Slovakia is rich in caves, with more than 6,200 that have already been explored.
Twelve Thirteen of these have been opened to the public by the Slovak Cave Administration (SSJ). A total of six are inscribed on the UNESCO World Natural Heritage List (Domica, Gombasecká, Jasovská, Krásnohorská, Dobšinská Ice and Ochtinská Aragonite).
Ice caves and more in Slovakia
Every cave administered by SSJ is unique.
The nature of the glaciations in the Dobšinská Ice Cave (eastern Slovakia) makes it one of the most important caves in the world (it was also among the first caves lit electrically) and the rich aragonite formations in the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave (eastern Slovakia) that resemble white flowers are some of the finest in Europe.
The most visited and possibly the most beautiful cave is Demänovská Cave of Liberty (northern Slovakia), with its majestic domes, hundreds of stairs and a roaring stream inside.
“I’ve been in a cave before, but it wasn’t as fabulous as this one,” said Francesca Orr, a tourist from Manchester, England.
The Demänovská Cave system is 35 kilometres long and also includes the Demänovská Ice Cave, located three kilometres from the Cave of Liberty.
More typical examples of extensive halls decorated with white sinter and huge stalagmites can be found at the Belianska Cave in the High Tatras and the Harmanecká Cave in central Slovakia.
Finding a path below the Tatras
The stories of the caves begin with those who discovered them.
“I was like a victim,” Jarmila Jirmerová said of her first experience inside the Bystrianska Cave that she helped discover. She followed a classmate there when she was around 20 and would go on to spend nearly half of her life underground. “We worked for three years to connect the old and the new part of the cave. We worked at night in wet clothes. We had to dry up during the day.”
The Bystrianska Cave, situated in the southern part of the Low Tatras, is one of the smaller accessible caves in Slovakia.
“A girlfriend will not cheat you as much as a cave,” she said. “It seduces you. You are sure there will be a great hall behind that rock – and you’ll find nothing.”
After a few years of exploration Jirmerová found today’s entrance hall to the cave and decided that the public should be able to see it too. The first visitors came to the cave on July 21, 1968 and she recalled the exhausting task of leading 3,000 people through it in a single day.
Walking through the cave today takes 45 minutes, and the tour extends 580 metres into the cave. It is also the only cave complex in Slovakia that is accessible to wheelchair users. Besides the beautiful stalagmites, stalactites and a 20-metre deep abyss, the cave is also renowned for its healing air.
Spelunking in Slovakia
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In addition to those run by SSJ, there are several privately managed caves in Slovakia that offer visitors a more authentic speleologist’s experience. For example, the Dead Bats’ Cave (central Slovakia), Stanišovská Cave (northern Slovakia), Zlá Diera (Bad Hole – eastern Slovakia) and Krásnohorská Cave (eastern Slovakia) are a world away from the fully-illuminated, well-paved caves operated by SSJ. Instead, visitors must climb or rappel down underground, offering an experience that feels like you are actually exploring the cave.
“The first thing we found here were thousands of small bats’ bones, like nowhere else,” said Milan Štéc, a caretaker of the Dead Bats’ Cave, when explaining its name. This huge mountain cave is situated 13 kilometres from Bystrianska and only one kilometre from Ďumbier, the highest peak of the Low Tatras.
Since 1981, Štéc and his team have discovered the biggest part of what now amounts to 21 kilometres of underground passageway. The cave is not as decorated as others, but it holds remarkable chambers and the second largest underground space in Slovakia. The Bystrický Dóm is the size of a football field and is 40 metres high.
The Dead Bats’ Cave is not typical. It is situated high in the mountains and the number of visitors is strictly limited; booking in advance is essential. Tour A offers a gentle introduction: an hour-long tour available to anyone older than six. But the more adrenaline-packed tours B and C require that visitors are in good physical and mental condition. As the cave is located in the mountains, it is necessary to take into consideration the two-kilometre-long hike to reach it.
You pass through the darkest and deepest places equipped with only a headlamp and a protective suit, relying on your skills when climbing over abysses or crawling in very narrow clefts. You climb on rope ladders and in clambers on wet and cold ground with sleeping bats around your head. A maximum of six people can take the tour together, and no children are allowed.
Entering the Hall of Giants
Another site offering a real speleological experience is Krásnohorská Cave in the village of Krásnohorská Dlhá Lúka. Visitors go to the Pension Jozefína where they pay an entrance fee and obtain the necessary gear. The cave itself lies one kilometre outside the village. People must wear a special outfit to protect their clothing as well as a helmet and headlamp. It is also necessary to wear boots, which can be borrowed at the pension.
After entering the tunnel, visitors are guided the whole way. The tour also includes some demanding elements, like climbing ladders, which require both good physical condition and a sense of caution.
There is no lighting in the cave (except for the Hall of Giants, which is equipped with one spotlight) which makes exploring the cave exciting (and the headlamps essential). Part of the tour leads above an underground river. The most demanding part requires visitors to move on two ropes above a shallow lake, making careful steps above the cold water.
The caves are as close to pristine as possible, and the experience all but imitates that of a real potholer, which means narrow squeezes, hair-raising obstacles and very grimy hands. For many, this is the principal charm of these caves: it is easy to feel like a daring explorer delving into the unknown.
“I felt like I was in an action movie,” noted one recent visitor after making it through. Parts of the cave are so tight that claustrophobic people might have a difficult time. The absolute highlight is the Hall of Giants with its 34-metre tall dripstone.
Until recently, the Guinness Book of Records listed it as the largest in existence, a large dome of breathtaking natural extravagance with a 12-metre wide base. It grows in volume every year as the relentless drips solidify, but the cavern it occupies is vast so vast that it will take a few thousand years before the dripstone becomes too big to accommodate visitors.
According to Jaroslav Stankovič who has been guiding the tours since the cave opened, going into the cave is different each time, and the visitors themselves provide the greatest stories. Stankovič particularly cherishes an expedition with a physically disabled Hungarian girl whose father very much wanted her to see a cave. The speleologists found a way to help her navigate the whole trail.
“When we came out, her father was moved to tears that we managed to do it,” Stankovič said.
SSJ contributed to more authentic experiences when, in 2016, it opened the Brestovec cave close to the Museum of Orava Village in Zuberec; a hardhat with a headlamp is a natural part of the outfit when entering the cave. Only people older than age six can visit the cave because of the steep stairs visitors climb during the visit.
- Bojnice: Bojnice Castle Cave (Jaskyňa pod Bojnickým zámkom (www.bojnicecastle.sk)
- Bojnice: Prepoštská Cave (Prepoštská jaskyňa) (https://muzeumpraveku.sk/)
- Driny Cave (www.ssj.sk)
- Pružina: Pružinská Dúpna Cave (Pružinská Dúpna jaskyňa) (www.speleostrazov.sk)
- Bystrianska Cave (Bystrianska jaskyňa) (www.ssj.sk)
- Demänovská Cave of Liberty (Demänovská jaskyňa slobody) (www.ssj.sk)
- Demänovská Ice Cave (Demänovská ľadová jaskyňa) (www.ssj.sk)
- Harmanecká Cave (Harmanecká jaskyňa) (www.ssj.sk)
- Dead Bats’ Cave (Jaskyňa mŕtvych netopierov) (https://jmn.sk/)
- Stanišovská Cave (Stanišovská jaskyňa) (www.stanisovska.sk)
- Važecká Cave (Važecká jaskyňa) (www.ssj.sk)
- Zuberec: Brestovská Cave (Brestovská jaskyňa) (www.ssj.sk)
- Belianska Cave (Belianska jaskyňa) (www.ssj.sk)
- Dobšinská Ice Cave (Dobšinská ľadová jaskyňa) (www.ssj.sk)
- Gombasecká Cave (Gombasecká jaskyňa) (www.ssj.sk)
- Domica Cave (Jaskyňa Domica) (www.ssj.sk)
- Jasovská Cave (Jasovská jaskyňa) (www.ssj.sk)
- Krásnohorská Cave (Krásnohorská jaskyňa) (www.krasnohorska-jaskyna.sk)
- Ochtinská Aragonite Cave (Ochtinská aragonitová jaskyňa) (www.ssj.sk)
- Bad Hole (Zlá diera) (http://zladiera.sk/)
- Drážovce: Svoradova jaskyňa
- Dvorníky nad Nitricou: Brloh
- Hubina: Malá dolnosokolská jaskyňa
- Hubina: Veľká dolnosokolská jaskyňa
- Nitrianske Rudno: Košútova jaskyňa
- Nitrianske Sučany: Brložná diera
- Omastiná: Žernovská jaskyňa
- Opatová: Opatovská jaskyňa
- Plavecký Mikuláš: Deravá skala
- Považská Teplá: Partizánska jaskyňa
- Prašník: Veľká pec
- Pružina: Babirátka
- Radošina: Čertova pec
- Ráztočno: Hájska jaskyňa
- Trenčianske Teplice: Jánošíkova jaskyňa
- Trenčianske Teplice: Jaskyňa pod Jeleňom
- Uhrovské Podhradie: Čerešňová jaskyňa
- Uhrovské Podhradie: Hradná jaskyňa
- Blatnica: Jaskyňa Mažarná
- Budiná: Jánošíkova skrýša
- Dolný Harmanec: Dekrétova jaskyňa
- Drienčany: Malá drienčanská jaskyňa
- Malá Lehota: Jazvinská jaskyňa
- Mučín: Mučínska jaskyňa
- Nemce: Netopieria jaskyňa
- Súľov-Hradná: Šarkania diera
- Bretka: Hutnianska jaskyňa
- Bretka: Peško
- Dobšiná: Zelená jaskyňa
- Hrhov: Oltár
- Letanovce: Biela jaskyňa
- Podolínec: Jaskyňa v Čube
- Poráč: Šarkanova diera
- Stratená: Jaskyňa v Havranej skale
- Tatranská Lomnica: Elektrárenská jaskyňa
- Tatranská Lomnica: Hučivá diera
- Toporec: Jaskyňa v Skalke