He entered politics immediately after the fall of communism. In 1990-1991 he was one of the top members of the Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement, which he then chaired in 1991-1998. He was also elected chairman of the Party of Hungarian Coalition (SMK) which was formed in 1998 to represent Hungarian minority in Slovakia.
Bugár was a member of the Czechoslovak federal parliament in 1990 and since 1992 he served as the national parliament deputy. In 1998 he was first elected deputy parliament’s speaker for the four-year term. Bugár was also elected MP in 2002 and in 2006.
In 2009, following a schism in the SMK, Bugár left the party along with four other MPs and founded Most-Híd. Bugár has been the chairman of the new party ever since. In 2010-2012 the party was one of the four coalition partners in the centre-right coalition under Iveta Radičová and Bugár again served as deputy parliament’s speaker. In 2012 early elections he was re-elected MP, as well as in 2016.