Early elections will be held on September 30 this year after MPs voted to shorten the current parliamentary term by almost six months.
Of the 148 MPs present, 92 supported the proposal, 54 were against, and two abstained.
The parties of the former government coalition - OĽaNO, Sme Rodina, SaS, and Za Ľudí - all voted for the September date.
Dates in late May and late June proposed by the opposition Smer and Hlas parties did not gain enough votes to pass.
Between May 23 and June 12 - Speaker Boris Kollár will formally announce the elections.
By July 2 - parties and coalitions must submit a list of candidates.
August 11 - the last date on which Slovaks living abroad can apply to vote from abroad.
At least 25 days before the elections - every household must receive official notice of when and where the elections will take place.
September 11 - last date people can apply for a voting card.
September 28 - a 48-hour voting moratorium starts.
September 29 - votes from abroad are delivered, citizens can personally ask for a voting card.
President Zuzana Čaputová, who had previously said she would appoint a caretaker government if MPs did not agree on a date for early elections by the end of January, said after the vote: "Given that parliament's decision was made by the end of January, although again at the last minute, I will not proceed with the appointment of a caretaker government for the time being."
"However, I would like to remind you that in the event of fundamental failures of Interim Prime Minister Eduard Heger's government, I am ready to appoint a caretaker government at any time for the remaining time until the snap elections," she added.
Following the vote, OĽaNO leader Igor Matovič said he believes that his party will be able to come to an agreement with the leader of Sme Rodina Boris Kollár and the head of Za Ľudí Veronika Remišová on a coalition and continue to function until the elections.
Remišová reluctantly accepted the need for early elections. "After SaS, Smer, Hlas and extremists helped bring down the government, and the refusal of SaS to support the new government, it is, unfortunately, the only feasible way," she said.
Meanwhile, Hlas leader Peter Pellegrini blamed former governing coalition party SaS for making Slovakia now face months of "absolute disruption of the state", adding that Slovakia was facing the biggest crisis in its history and the interim government is without mandate and authority.